Black Tip is caused by fungus that attacks wheat or barley kernels. In the early development stage the mold results in a decreased yields. In later stages attacks it results in discolored kernels that carry unwanted odors which results in a decrease in the commercial market value of the grain. According to USDA FGIS ( United States Department of Agriculture, Federal Grain Inspection Service) , “kernels of wheat are considered damaged for inspection and grading purposes only when the damage is distinctly apparent”.
In the U.S. wheat standard, blackened kernels are considered as damaged. For US No. 1 grade wheat, only 2% of damage is permitted and for US grade No. 2 only 4%. This level of damage is critical for the overall wheat quality and the color of produced flour. For example, damaged durum wheat affects the appearance in semolina with undesirable black points.